Shalom, everyone! The mo’edim are appointed times The Creator gave unto B’nei Yisrael to remember and observe as meetings between Yisrael and The Creator. The mo’edim were to be times of thanksgiving, worship, and praise unto The Creator, and times of rest and reflection for B’nei Yisrael. Each mo’ed had specific instructions from The Creator on how they were to be observed including, time of occurrence, sacrifices that were to be performed, and permissible activities during these very special seasons. The mo’edim are the times when The Creator draws closest to His Creation; they are also times for us to stop and reflect upon our actions, repent of any wrongdoing, grow closer to The Creator through worship and prayer, and praise and thank him for all that He has done.
The mo’edim are so special to The Creator that He created a specific ecclesiastical calendar for their observance. In Exodus 12:1-2, YAH commands Yisrael to start their ecclesiastical and regnal year with the month of Aviv in the Spring. Psalm 104:19 states that YAH made the moon to mark the mo’edim. The ecclesiastical calendar was actually a lunisolar calendar to be used by the priests, trained in astronomy, agriculture and the natural environment to determine when the mo’edim would occur during the lunar year.
This ecclesiastical calendar would begin in the Spring with the sighting of the first new moon closest to the arrival of the Vernal (Spring) Equinox. The lunar year typically has twelve moons/lunar months. There are exceptions to this rule, however, in that the lunar year may have 13 moons. When this occurs, intercalary days are added causing the next new moon after the 13th moon is counted as the first new moon of the new ecclesiastical year. As a rule, the first new moon of the ecclesiastical year cannot be counted before the arrival of the Vernal (Spring) Equinox. This is so that the planting and harvest seasons, specifically Spring and Fall, remain in sync. With the process of intercalation, the ecclesiastical calendar becomes a lunisolar calendar.
Ancient pre-exilic Yisrael utilized two calendars: An ecclesiastical calendar for the mo’edim, and a civil calendar used by laymen to conduct their day-to-day affairs. Civil business was also conducted according to a lunisolar calendar, beginning in the Fall when the year number was incremented by one.
The following is a list of the appointed times (mo’edim) commanded by YAH to B’nei Yisrael to observe as found in the Torah given to Moshe. Each of these mo’edim will be discussed in greater detail in later posts:
(The weekly Sabbath)
|A weekly day of rest from creative work (melakhah) observed on the seventh and last day of the seven-day weekly cycle. The weekly Shabbat occurs from sunset Friday to sunset Saturday, a period of 24 hours. This commandment was given in commemoration of The Creator‘s day of rest after six days of creating the heavens of the earth; and also as a memorial of the deliverance of the Nation of Yisra’el from slavery in Mizraim (Egypt) where they were not permitted a day of rest.|
|In pre-exilic Yisra’el, the new moon was the first visible crescent (FVC) moon. The Nation of Yisra’el are commanded to observe the sighting of the new moon as a joyous celebration with the blast of trumpets/horns.|
|Observed annually on the 14th day of Aviv, the first month, or on the 14th day of Ziv, the second month, if one could not observe it on the 14th day of Aviv. This day is the last preparation day for the seven-day Chag HaMatzot (Festival of Unleavened Bread). On this day, all leaven is removed from among the Nation of Yisra’el in all our habitations, the Pesach lamb/kid offering is sacrificed in the afternoon, but eaten later that evening after sunset, corresponding to the 15th day of Aviv.|
(Feast of Unleavened Bread)
|Observed annually from the 15th to the 21st day of Aviv, the first month. During this seven-day festival, the Nation of Yisra’el are commanded to eat unleavened bread and abstain from consuming any and all products containing leaven. The first day (15th of Aviv) and seventh day (21st of Aviv) of this festival are yom tov, (days of rest, Sabbaths) on which B’nei Yisrael are commanded to abstain from creative work (melakhah) and hold a sacred celebration.|
(Counting of the Omer)
|The counting of the Omer begins on the day after the first yom tov of Chag HaMatzot in the First Month, Aviv, and lasts for 50 days, seven complete weeks until Shavuot, on 6th of Mattan, the third month.|
(Feast of Weeks/Day of First Fruits)
|Observed on the 6th of Mattan, the 50th day of the counting of the Omer. It is a yom tov (day of rest, Sabbath) on which the Nation of Yisra’el are commanded to abstain from creative work (melakhah) and hold a sacred convocation.|
(Day of Trumpets, Day of Blasts)
|Observed annually on 1st day of Ethanim, the seventh month, commemorated with a sacred convocation with the loud blasts of trumpets/horns and/or beating of drums. This is a yom tov, (day of rest, Sabbath) on which the Nation of Yisra’el are forbidden to do any creative work (melakhah).
Also known as “Rosh HaShanah” (“Head of the Year”), the 1st day of Ethanim is the beginning of the civil year.
(Day of Atonement)
|A complete abstention from work, food, and drink observed annually from before sunset of the 9th day through the 10th day of Ethanim, the seventh month, a period of about 25 hours.|
(Feast of Booths, Feast of Tabernacles, Feast of Ingathering)
|A seven-day festival observed annually from the 15th day to the 21st day of Ethanim, the seventh month. For seven days, the Nation of Yisra’el are commanded to live in booths/tents as a reminder of the sojourning of the ancestors in the wilderness after the exodus from Mizraim (Egypt). On the 15th day, the Nation of Yisra’el are commanded to abstain from work and hold a sacred convocation. During this convocation, we are commanded to bring the four species (product of hadar trees, branches of palm trees, boughs of leafy trees, and willows of the brook) and rejoice before The Creator.|
(Eighth Day of Assembly)
|Observed annually on the 22nd day of Ethanim, the seventh month, immediately after Sukkot. Sometimes referred to as the eighth day of Sukkot. The Nation of Yisra’el are commanded to abstain from work and hold a sacred convocation.|